Section 3: Reproduction and inheritance

a) Reproduction
b) Inheritance

a) Reproduction

3.1 describe the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction

3.2 understand that fertilisation involves the fusion of a male and female gamete to produce a
zygote that undergoes cell division and develops into an embryo

Flowering plants

3.3 describe the structures of an insect-pollinated and a wind-pollinated flower and explain
how each is adapted for pollination

3.4 understand that the growth of the pollen tube followed by fertilisation leads to seed and
fruit formation

3.5 recall the conditions needed for seed germination

3.6 understand how germinating seeds utilise food reserves until the seedling can carry
out photosynthesis

3.7 understand that plants can reproduce asexually by natural methods (illustrated by runners)
and by artificial methods (illustrated by cuttings)

Humans

3.8 recall the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems

3.9 understand the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle

3.10 describe the role of the placenta in the nutrition of the developing embryo

3.11 understand how the developing embryo is protected by amniotic fluid

3.12 recall the roles of oestrogen and testosterone in the development of secondary sexual
characteristics.